About haiku

Sabine Sommerkamp (1992)

The German-language haiku seal. From the beginning to the present

September 1920 Rainer Maria Rilke from Geneva wrote: “Do you know the little Japanese (three-line) stanza that Shark quays is called? the (sic) Nouvelle Revue Francaise brings about transmissions of this indescribably mature and pure design… ”Addressee of the letter in which Rilke expresses his“ discovery ”of the haiku is Gudi Nölke. A few days later, from September 17th to 20th, he visited her at the Chalet Wartenstein, discussed with her and her Japanese partner Asoka Matsumoto about haiku, which for him "became a new and valuable content of consciousness".
Little moths shudder across the book, shivering; they are dying tonight and will never know that it was not spring.
This one of a total of three handed down Haiku Rilkes is one of the early isolated individual examples that break the Japanese three-liner compositionally in German-speaking countries. The German-language haiku seal only really began in the 60s. But let's take a look back and ask about the very first examples of German haiku and the influencing factors that determine them.

I. Early individual examples of German-language haiku

German haiku have been around for about 90 years. At first sporadically, then for a long time none, then again, since the Second World War continuously increasing. However, an accurate identification of this early German-speaking “haiku era” can only be an approximate one for the following reasons: First, a large part of the sources has not yet been viewed, for example, a lot of what appeared in private print or occasionally in magazines; on the other hand, it has so far not been possible to precisely delimit the influences of short Japanese forms, which included English and French, from the company's own traditional lines. Impressionism, which started from France and manifested itself in all areas of art, the general enthusiasm for Japan around 1900 and not least the political situation after the victory of Japan in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904/05 awakened a feeling of intellectual affinity and identity in Germany , which among other things stimulated literary imitation. This agreement in terms of artistic and aesthetics, however, makes it difficult to assess any suggestions made by Tanka and Haiku in the lyrical short forms that are intensively cultivated by Impressionism. Knowledge of Japanese poetry and direct influences have been documented in individual poets since around 1890. The first "independent" German haiku are included in the poetry collection "Polymeter" by Paul Ernst (1898-1866), published in 1933:
A water rose that emerges from the deep.

The water ripples.

The poets around 1900, whose work contains haiku or impressionist, self-contained three-liner, include Peter Altenberg (1859-1919), Alfred Mombert (1872-1942) and Arno Holz (1863-1929), who temporarily with Paul Ernst worked on the renewal of the lyrical forms:
The embers go out in the sky, softly raise the eternal stars.
The French “Shark Kai” fashion, which was influenced by Impressionism, appeared in the early 20s, in addition to Rilke, in the works of Franz Blei (1871 - 1942) and Ivan Goll (1891 - 1950), which were partly playful and partly sentimental Three lines:
Did you cry so much After twenty years of parting, it's still raining.
Klabund, who recorded French haiku from around 1920 in his famous literary history, calls these poems "imitations of the lyrical style of the Japanese". Formally and in terms of content, the three-liners that emerged during this period can generally be seen in the in-depth knowledge of their authors' haiku. Only Rilke comes close to the Zen content of the Japanese model, as the following haiku, created a few weeks before his death, shows:
Entre ses vingt fards elle cherche un pot plein: devenue pierre.
Haiku gained a higher profile in Germany through two publications by Franz Blei and Ivan Goll. In his book "Haikai", published in 1925, Blei defines haiku as a "picture in the smallest space with a pointed accent in the third or even in the second line" and explains his theoretical statements with self-written examples. Goll describes the haiku in his essay "Twelve Shark Quays of Love" published in 1926 as "lyrical epigram, which should convey the most intense image and wide feeling in as few words as possible". It is likely that the quoted early attempts at haiku, as well as the two essays by Blei and Goll, contributed to the spread of the Japanese three-liners and "contributed to its penetration into the youth between the two world wars". But "the beginnings of dealing with the small poems were stifled by the National Socialist ideology literature."

II. Invigorating impulses for German post-war poetry

The period of the Second World War was not very productive for German-speaking haiku. It was only after 1945 that the Japanese three-liner became literarily attractive again and subsequently initiated the start of an autonomous German-language haiku poem. Their emergence was favored on a broad basis by the haiku adaptation of leading post-war poets, such as Günter Eich:
Caution The chestnuts are blooming. I take note of it, but do not comment on it.
The haiku influence in Eich's poetry, which also translated Japanese haiku into German, is reflected in the works of other authors who shaped German post-war poetry, such as Paul Celan, Helmut Heißenbüttel, Eugen Gomringer and Bertolt Brecht:
The farmer plows the field. Who will bring in the harvest?

Bertolt Brecht

The question of whether this is a direct or indirect haiku adaptation brought about by other literary influences cannot be answered clearly because of the parallel developments and interactions of an increasingly international literature. It is a fact, however, that such haiku moments in the work of influential authors of German poetry on a broad basis provide invigorating impulses in terms of concentrated brevity, objectivity, immediacy, and symbolism. The reasons for the growing interest in haiku after the Second World War can essentially be seen in three aspects. Firstly, there was a high "catching up" in German poetry, secondly, the "literary insecurity" of the poets of the war years and the ubiquitous lack of history directed the view towards the Far East, and thirdly, the flood of translations of foreign literature favored the stylistic adaptation of the Japanese three-liners.

III. German-language haiku translations: an overview

Of the earliest German transmissions of Japanese poetry (1894), none influenced the few haiku that first appeared, because these translations emphasized old Japanese poetry and tanka. For the German-speaking countries, the haiku was only really opened up after 1900. As in the case of Rilke, French transmissions or translations from English were the source for the early German-language haiku. In addition to Karl Florenz's popular poet's greetings from the east (30), which continued until the 1894s, in which the haiku is translated as a rhymed four-liner, early translations include Hans Bethge's “Japanese Spring” (1911) and those at the time better known broadcasts by Paul Enderling, Julius Kurth and Otto Hauser. Furthermore, Michel Revon's widely read “Anthologie de la littdrature jaonaise des origines au XXe siècle” (1910), which, extended by the writer Paul Adler and translated from French, was published in German in 1926, Wilhelm Gundert's literary history “The Japanese Literature”, which is still valid today. (1929), the great English haiku anthology by Miyamori Asatarô "An Anthology of Haiku Ancient and Modern" (1932) and the popular transmissions of Paul Lüth's "Spring, Swords, Women" (1942). The "haiku interpreters" that have been widely read since the Second World War include Werner Helwig, "Wortblätter im Winde" (1954), Manfred Hausmann, "Love, Death and Full Moon Nights" (1951), Gerolf Coudenhove, "Full Moon and Cicada Sounds" ”(1955),“ Japanese Seasons ”(1963), Günther Debon,“ The Ferry in the Snow ”(1955), Erwin Jahn,“ Falling Flowers ”(1968), Dietrich Krusche,“ Haiku ”(1970) and Jan Ulenbrook, “Haiku: Japanese three-liner” (1979). Special mention needs to be made of the translations of the Viennese sinologist and Japanese scientist Anna von Rottauscher, first published in 1939 and published every few years, “Yours yellow chrysanthemums. Japanese wisdom: Haiku poetry ”. Because this volume with its Japanese three-liners translated into irregular verses, simple language and rich in associations "documents one of the roots of German haikus in its reception history".

IV. A foundation for German-language haiku poetry

As part of a rediscovery of the Japanese three-liner, numerous authors and independent haiku attempts were made simultaneously and independently at different locations in the first decade after the Second World War. For example in Vienna, where René Altmann (1929-1978), Hans Carl Artmann (born 1921), Andreas Okopenko (born 1930) and Hans Weissenborn (born 1932) in the Freundeskreis have dedicated themselves to haiku since 1946. In 1953, the first haiku collection by the Lower Austrian author Karl Kleinschmidt appeared with “The Narrow Way” - a date that was shown to mark the beginning of German-language haiku poetry for the first time. Kleinschmidt, who calls his 200 three-line poems "Haiku" only in the subtitle and only in parenthesis, documents a "groping", sometimes still not very independent poetic approach. It does not fulfill the verse specification of the classic seventeen syllable pattern (5/7/5) but adheres strongly to its "Haiku source", the translations of Anna von Rotauschers, both formally and in terms of content:
How I dip my hands in the water in the morning - it sounds so special. Spring ...?

Karl Kleinschmidt

Winter snow suddenly turned into rain 0 spring, are you there?

Sampu

A Haiku poem, which is formally and in terms of content equivalent to the Japanese model but is nevertheless autonomous, is published in 1962 under the title “Haiku”. The author is the Austrian writer Imma von Bodmershof (1895-1982). Although for her the translations of Anna von Rotauschers were a “bridge” to the haiku, she dresses almost half of the 128 poems arranged according to the seasons in the classical way Haiku form. In the course of her in-depth haiku studies, she later revised the longer three-lines of this collection: ”... when I published the first haiku at the time, I still thought it was allowed to sometimes 19 or even 21 syllables (always only odd numbers, the even ones close, the odd ones leave the way open for the reader) and I used 60 of 128 Haiku this opportunity. However, I have completely moved away from it. The number 17 contains a force that cannot be replaced by anything else. By revealing some nuances, I shortened the length of this volume's haiku. ” But not only the form, the content is also central to the author, who is a friend of Rilke's, and as for him, the image, the symbol, the Zen content that is inherent in the Japanese three-liner is the actual haiku component: ”… Hailu ( sic) not at all do, they can only meet you, only one picture at a time can become transparent for the symbol, and that is what it is all about in my eyes. ”
The candle goes out. How loud the cricket calls in the dark garden.
A burning candle in the dark, in Christianity closely linked to the appearance of Jesus, represents spiritual knowledge as a self-nourishing and thus self-consuming light. It is a doomed fire that has eternal value. In the present poem it is already in decline, indicating its extinction to the day and season reference: its state corresponds to the position of the sun in the autumn evening. With the onset of darkness, voices that were barely audible before are awakened “in the dark garden”, inside man: the outside environment, nature, is a mirror of the spiritual space. How the force of seasonal growth is reflected in the sun-ripened fruit in the autumn harvest season reveals the spiritual maturity of man in times of decline. It is only in the autumn dark that the "light fruit" unfolds its full radiance, the internalization of the sun becomes audible, like the loud cry of the cricket in the garden at night. This picture places the poem in the series of traditional Japanese haiku. If you compare it, for example, with Issa's related three-liner, in which the nightly weeping of the cicadas is put into perspective with the indication that the stars also have to part, you can see the same interplay of light and shadow. It is expressed even more clearly in Bashô's famous cicada haiku, in which the chirping of the crickets seems to penetrate into the rocks, into the darkness, under the midday sun. The extinguishing of the candle and the call of the cricket exemplify the seasonal rhythm of systole and diastole in their relationship to each other, in which the person perceives the light of the sun as a spiritual force "in the dark garden". Haiku, the two “Haiku Collections” and “In the Foreign Garden” published by the well-read author and the poetological “Study on Haiku” by her husband Wilhelm von Bodmershof, published in 1970 and 1980, as well as the poetry by Hajo Jappe, who was a friend of both authors (1903 - 1988), who published his first Haiku volume in 1958, lend a solid foundation to the German-language Haiku seal that is still under construction.
Through the crumbling roof, the wind gently reaches me in cherry blossom branches.

Hajo Jappe

V. Basic poetological positions of German-speaking “haijin”

A representative picture of the current German haiku scene was provided by the 30 und. September 1979 held in Bottrop "First German Haiku Biennial". The aim of this first major gathering of around 20 authors from all over Germany was to recite short poems of their own, to discuss the importance of the Japanese haiku for German poetry, and to comment on its binding nature and possible adaptations. A fundamental clarification of these aspects was necessary, among other things, due to the appearance of the first anthology of the German Haiku (1979), since this anthology presents a broad spectrum of German-speaking forms from the beginnings to the present, but also without the authoritative stylistic evaluation The question of a relevant poetics implies. There was a lack of clarity about the “correctness” of the lyrical starting point both among the authors represented here and among the other 'haijin', for whom this book represents a preliminary guide. The discussion was therefore primarily about the degree of poetic adaptation to traditional Japanese haiku. Here, as well as on the basis of the poems presented later, the individual contributions can be summarized in three basic positions, some of which merge into one another: in a partial, a formal and substantive and in a purely substantive approximation to the Japanese three-liner. Apart from Jürgen Völkert-Marten, Peter Coryllis, among others, spoke in favor of a partial alignment, who pointed out that the Japanese fluidity, the mental concentration of the haikus, pointed the way to German poetry to a new short form; It was not a question of imitating the three-liner, but of expressing this new form, and the risk of a purely formal orientation had to be excluded. He suggested that haiku in German be seen as a poetic aphorism with the lowest possible number of syllables. I replied that I am campaigning for a German equivalent in terms of form and content that the name “aphorism” may indicate a subjective rating. What is important is the objective, universal and clear character of the short poem, the core of which is a central picture. The neutrality value of this nature-related image, which triggers a sudden recognition in the reader, is not specifically Japanese, but transferable, since its effect is aimed at the unconscious in humans. The same applies to the number of syllables; Although the German language is structured differently from the Japanese and consequently the syllable count is different, one thing is constant in East and West: the duration of a single breath, which corresponds to the length of 17 syllables. Hans Stilett agreed with this point of view by pointing out the formal value in addition to the meaning of verbal recesses in the meaningfulness of the single word, the rediscovery of "spilled values" by dealing with foreign cultural goods. He himself tries to achieve this alignment by means of a Iambian-Trochean rhythm and a right-justified spelling. It is ideal if, as with the great musicians, the strict form combines with the intensity and liveliness of the message. The formal limitation can only restrict the small mind, for the great artist it is an additional requirement, an aesthetic attraction, because he has so much to say that he sees the form as an enrichment that prevents the artwork from flowing away. K. raised an objection to a formal adaptation. Hülsmann. On the one hand, it is not possible to apply the so-called rules to a completely differently structured language, and secondly, there are no fundamental rules. The difference between European and Asian thinking would lie in the word “basically”. We always have something “fundamental”; this attitude is foreign to the Japanese. The trends of modern Japanese haiku poetry also showed formal variability. In a summary statement, the discussion group agreed that brevity, conciseness, visuality and the transmission of a hidden meaning are binding criteria for a possible German-language haiku.
Crane train on the mountain - they know where to go and where to go. Where do we go?

Marianne Junghans

The splendidly fluttering leaves will die on the still hidden but quietly crackling buds

Hans stiletto

The view of the city from the hill of the Acropolis - the gods are silent, the people live.

Harald K. Hülsmann

What applies to the Bottrop discussion about a possible German-language haiku poetics is what Harold G. Henderson noted in 1963 about the character of the North American haiku: “When it comes to establishing standards for haiku written in English… it does seem likely that our poets will eventually establish norms of their own. ”

VI. Role model North America

English-language haiku, which, like German-language haiku, developed into an autonomous form of poetry separate from the Japanese model in the 60s, now offers the greatest literary and extra-literary heterogeneity in the western haiku hemisphere. Over 20 haiku societies and magazines currently care for and spread this still young genre, the pedagogical status of haiku as "the most commonly taught poetic form in the primary schools" guarantees a foundation for the structure and existence of English-language haiku poetry, and last but not least, the central role that she now plays in non-literary areas such as photography, film, music, dance and poetry therapy, all of which contributes to the fact that the writing of haiku is gradually becoming a popular style in the USA and in the mother country of the Japanese three-liners of popular sports. If one wonders why this development was so favored, there are five global reasons: the greater willingness of Americans to adapt to foreign cultural assets, the closer proximity of the haikuaactive west coast to Japan, the comparatively high proportion of Japanese living in the USA, the strong influence of the Haikus on imagism and "beat poetry" on today's US literature and not least the direct contact of the American occupation forces during the Second World War in Japan with Asian literature and Zen Buddhism. Certainly, these reasons have no influence on the development of German-language haiku poetry. As a yardstick and orientation guide, however, the haiku situation in North America offers us the opportunity to investigate factors that could appropriately anchor German-language haiku in the local literature. One of these factors would be haiku care and distribution societies, as well as regular publications. Let's take a look back. - The first national, larger literary society for the maintenance of Japanese short poetry was the “Senryû Center” in Düsseldorf, founded in 1981. The association, which became a member of the “Federation of International Poetry Association” in Washington in 1984 and an associated member of UNESCO, counted approx. 120 domestic and foreign authors, whose contributions were published in four almanacs published by Carl Heinz Kurz between 1985 and 1987. However, the efficiency of this center proved to be low with regard to the popularization of the haiku in that the focus was not on the haiku but on the senryu. As a result, after the Senryu Center was dissolved in June 1988, numerous authors applied for membership in the “Deutsche Haiku-Gesellschaft e. V ”(DHG), Vechta, who is dedicated to the care of Senryus as well as tankas and rengas, but places the haiku at the center of her activities according to the statutes:“ The association's special concern is the preservation and promotion of the independent haiku, his Distribution and maintenance in the German-speaking area. ” The organ of publication of the association, which, with over 80 members, brings together around a fifth of the Haiku authors who are proven to be living in the Federal Republic, is the "Quarterly Bulletin of the German Haiku Society". With the addition of "apropos", magazine for art, literature, criticism, there is a haiku platform for the first time in spring 1985. As the first regular forum for German-language haiku poetry, the "haiku spectrum" contained in "apropos" from 1981 to 1985 presented three times a year on 12 to 28 pages in addition to reviews, reports, interviews, interpretations and form comparisons of poems totaling 98 " haijin ”- 76 German-speaking, 9 Japanese and 13 English-speaking. Tanka, Renga and Senryu as well as Haiku penned by students were also published. A special section, the "German-English Haiku Encounter", brought German-speaking and English-speaking authors together literarily. Analogous to the sketched basic poetic positions of German-speaking "haijin", the haiku published in "apropos" can be divided into three broad categories, a classification that has also emerged for North American haiku: in the traditionally oriented style Imma by Bodmershofs and Hajo Jappes, in the freer, more formally independent style (“liberated haiku”), such as Peter Coryllis and Harald K. Hülsmann in Bottrop proclaimed and in the experimental style of Hans Stilett, Georg Jappe or Roman York.
Two pigeons nest on a gable roof, in a niche.

Günther blade

dawn in the drops on the acorn.

Finley M. Taylor

rauten-haiku (bayern 1) blue the sky white white blue the sky blue white white the sky blue

Roman York

A second factor anchoring German-speaking haikus is its role in school teaching, which, in contrast to that in the USA, can still be described as minor. Although the Japanese three-liner is increasingly used in reading books and textbooks for mother tongue teaching, the lack of knowledge of haiku in many educators and the comparatively small number of initiatives such as “authors at schools” that could illustratively carry haiku into the classroom are sufficient far from laying the necessary foundation for the structure and existence of the German-language haiku seal. Active support should be provided here, for example by haiku societies or haikuversed educators. All the more important is a third haiku-anchoring factor, the connection of the haiku with non-literary areas. It is illustrated in the German-speaking world, for example in the areas of lkebana, photography and music, and, as in the case of Günther Klinge and Ann Atwood, has already led to fruitful cooperation between German-American haiku production. The cooperation of German-speaking 'haijin' with those of other countries is a fourth, essential factor, since the German-speaking Haiku thus moves into an international context. In addition to Japan and the United States, special mention should be made of China, where Haiku's letter, which has been frowned upon for political reasons since the Cultural Revolution, is gradually regaining its appeal. A fifth and last factor relevant to the anchoring of the German-speaking haiku should be mentioned: dealing with the sources of the haiku poetry. Because only in this way, in direct confrontation with the aesthetic criteria of the Japanese model, can what Rainer Maria Rilke was fascinated by the Haiku: a "design that is indescribably mature and pure". This article is taken from: Tadao Araki: German-Japanese Encounters in Short Poems. Munich: Iudicum Verlag. 1992. ISBN 3-89129-305-4. Pp. 79-91, references to the quotations and mentioned works can be found there.
Haiku · Tanka · Tan renga · haibun · haiga · Renku seal · Renshi · rengay

Haiku

The tradition of Japanese poetry includes community seals written by two or more partners. A poet - and this is considered a special honor today - begins with the so-called hokku, which is then supplemented by further verses according to different rules and the given order of the participants. Such became early on hokku summarized and published in separate collections. It developed over time hokku to an independent direction of literature, initially known as haikai, since the beginning of the 20th century as haiku. Like no other verse form, haiku has spread throughout the world and is now written in all major languages. Japanese haiku usually consist of three word groups of 5 - 7 - 5 phonetic units (mores), whereby the words are simply strung together in a column. In German, haiku are usually written in three lines. Japanese phonetic units are all the same length and carry less information than syllables in European languages. 17 Japanese sound units roughly correspond to the information content of 10-14 German syllables. That is why it has become common practice among many haiku writers in European languages ​​to make do with less than 17 syllables without losing the content or the image shown. An essential part of haiku is concreteness and the reference to the present. Traditional haiku in particular indicate a season. A key feature is also the open text that has not been completed and that is only completed in the reader's experience. Not everything is said in the text, feelings are rarely mentioned. They should only be revealed through the specific things listed and the context.

Modern haiku schools not only question the traditional form, but also some rules of text design and try to break new ground.

Summer grass is all that remained of the warrior's dream

Matsuo Bashô, 1644-1694

Tanka

The Tanka is the oldest Japanese short poem form. It is already listed in the first anthologies from the 8th and 9th centuries; its origins go back to the 5th century. For the first time, the tanka delimits the lines of 5 - 7 syllables that are common in the long poem in a closed form (meter 5 - 7 - 5 - 7 - 7). It served upscale correspondence in feudal Japan. The form kept coming up for a short time and in an artistic way, but never attained the popularity of haiku. The poem is divided into an upper gallery consisting of three lines and the two-line lower gallery. Its popularity is growing rapidly today because it offers a little more space. However, this fact should not tempt you to split a long sentence into five lines. A break in content should be felt between the two parts, which contrasts the two against each other and which can also be illustrated by a line spacing. Both the closed and the structured spelling are common. In terms of content, the Tanka is a self-contained poem that is not tied to any particular topic. In the sense of haiku, the upper gallery can represent a picture or experience, set in motion. The next two lines have the task of completing the picture, letting the movement run out, interpreting what has been experienced. So the two tunnels are more in the relationship between question and answer, riddle and solution, departure and arrival. Careful choice of words, avoidance of rhymes, word separations or repetitions of words also apply to the Tanka. A flowing rhythm and a melodious speech melody are preferable to the harshness of the Iambian staccato.

Haiku, Senryu and Tanka have no headings or signatures. The discussions about this regulation and the deviations from it are as old as the poem.

the wind today has this spice from the sea from the dunes of 'he thinks of me'

Ingrid Kunschke

Tan renga

Japanese "tanrenga" (short chain poem) is the name for the ancient Tanka (to 5-7-5 / 7-7 moors) by two authors, which was called "renga" (chain poem) at the time. The term “renga” immediately extended to the longer chain poems that followed, and so are typical Renga units of 2 or 3 verses (Mitsumono), 10, 12, 18 (half-casings), 20, 36 (casings ) and more verses in the traditional system. Each 5-7-5 unit and each 7-7 unit is to be regarded as a closed verse (ku).

The first verse in these systems always has the name "hokku“, The second waki or wakiku, the final verse ageku (completing verse). In order to distinguish the verse-rich renga from the initial two-stanza renga, the latter is called tanrenga. The 5-7-5 syllable verses are called “long verses” (chôku), and the 7-7 syllable verses are called “short verses” (tanku).

Kastanienbaum - The bicycle basket underneath

fills with flowers ...

on the way home very carefully around every stone

Franz-Christoph Schiermeyer / Claudia Brefeld

haibun

“Haibun” is a contraction of “Haikai no bunshô” and means Hai (kai) prose (bun) or prose in Haikai style. The term came up at the beginning of the 17th century. These prose statements were made in the form of mis cells, diary notes or travel diaries, letters, essays and the like. Ä. recorded. The Haibun had its forerunners in Japanese literature. Above all, the literary genre “Zuihitsu” (Miszellen) and the diary and travel diary literature (Nikki, Kikô) enjoyed great popularity. “Zuihitsu” means “following the brush (hitsu) (zui)” and refers to writings which, from spontaneous inspiration, “allow the impressions, experiences and considerations to flow into the brush” and sketchily put them on paper. A Zuihitsu can consist of simple word notes, sentences, but also longer essays. In terms of content, it has a thematic diversity: nature and human life, social criticism, science, philosophy, literary theory, etc. It is precisely because of this variety of topics that writers, scholars, statesmen, monks like to use this form of literary recording. The classic masterpieces of Zuihitsu are the Makura no sôshi (pillow book) by the lady-in-waiting Sei Shônagon (10th century AD), the Hôjôki (records from the ten feet in the quarter of my hut) by Kamo no Chômei (1153-1216) , the Tsurezuregusa (recordings in leisure hours) by Yoshida Kenkô (1283-1350) and the Kagetsusôshi (notes on cherry blossoms and full moon night) by Matsudaira Sadanobu (1758-1829). It goes without saying that a shark bun has a high proportion of haikai. In general, a shark bun is a loose sequence of haikai prose and haikai poetry. The haikai are either sprinkled into the prose text or complete it. The conciseness of the Haikai represents the lyrical high point of the prose text. However, as the Haibun literature shows, a Haibun does not necessarily have to have one or more Haikai. Many texts can do without this, without losing their poetic value. As for the Haikai, the Haibun Matsuo Bashô (1644-1694) is the first, if not the most important, representative. Other respected Haibun writers include Yosa Buson (1715-1783), Yokoi Yayü (1702-1783), Kobayashi Issa (1763-1827). For Bashô, a successful Haibun must meet the following criteria: It must not be constructed by the mind, but must arise from the spontaneous experience; it should have a closed overall concept and should not be conclusive; it must have a concise and simple style; The use of allusions to famous poets, scholars, monks etc. from the past are considered an essential stylistic device.

Afterwards at the stop

There are five of us in London. A couple of friends, my children and I are drifting through the shopping streets on this unusually sunny, yes, warm October morning. And even though the newspapers are talking about the economic crisis, people hurry packed in plastic bags between all the department stores and cafes in this and that direction. Again and again I bump against their edges, smell expensive perfume up close, say “Excuse me” twice and then leave it. Because nobody speaks on these boulevards. There, we want to take the bus! An old bus, one with an open plateau at the end! One of those you can jump on! I jump ... "Do you still have them all?" My friend commands me. Not only that I almost drove off alone, because nobody could run after this hustle and bustle. Not his wife, nor my daughter. And if I had thought that my son, at eight years old, could have nothing better to do than jump after his father. Thank God the boy was too slow to hold on to him. I should have seen how horrified he looked after me. And they would only have caught up with me because the next stop was less than a hundred meters away and the bus still had to wait.

"Sorry," I say. And after a while: "I don't know what's got into me."

I was born here. My father died here. Now I'm disconnecting the umbilical cord ...

Ralf Broker

haiga

As in the word haiku means shark, in the word haiga "funny" or "humorous and ga means in general" an image ", a colored or black and white image, a drawing or a graphic. By haiga we mean the combination of visual and textual elements on a common surface: a canvas, a scroll, a sheet of paper, a fan, etc. The Haiga is a further development of Chinese Nanga painting, which artists from China with new elements also spread to Japan. Nanga painting is characterized by a spirit similar to that of haiku poetry. Haiga is a form of visual art in which text and image are combined on a common surface. Two worlds coexist on one painting surface and it is up to the artist to find the optimal way, each with its own rules and its own aesthetics (haiku or Picture). The essentials of haiku poetry are known - the essential points that describe visual art are color, lines or Brush strokes, the areas, the outlines and the composition of the picture. For the total work of art, the Haiga artist considers exactly where and in what form he places the text for the Haiku on the picture. Haiku and picture in a haiga should be displayed and work equally. The content of the text is translated into a visual language. The image and text correspond in such a way that the image should remain an independent work of art and not become a "literal" illustration of the haiku idea. I would even go so far that the described event should not be represented one to one, but would find a common level in a new representation. The image within the visual-textual composition reflects simple everyday life with its comical or humorous facets. When looking at the picture and haiku, the tiny and fleeting events unfold in the empty, unpainted space. The artist or artists avoid the description or Presentation of unnecessary trivialities. The Haiga is defined by the same characteristics as the Haiku poetry: The Haiga is unromantic, very close to the earth, unpretentious and humorous, it makes the unspectacular, daily topics and objects visible. These characteristics can also be found in the terminology known to us: Haikai taste, Haikai fragrance, simplicity, frugality, modest and simple lifestyle, bitter and passing beauty, transcendence, avoidance of the ordinary and of cleverness and refinement. Haiku no kokoro (heart and soul of haiku) can also be found in the Haiga. Simplicity, simplicity Thrift and modesty are the main characteristics of Japanese aesthetics: “(…) the greatest effect with the smallest means is particularly true for the Haiga” (Stephen Addiss) Just as the Haiku is divided into two between the first two lines and the third line (surprising twist) gives, also in modern Haiga a division of Haiku and eg digital art. In a haiga, neither the haiku explains the picture nor does the picture illustrate the poem, but haiku or Images add a new layer to the other artistic element. In a haiga, the haiku and picture are presented together and given the names of the artist and the poet (often one and the same). Today we differentiate between different forms of Haiga: the traditional Haiga, the contemporary Haiga and the experimental Haiga. The traditional haiga today has a double meaning: On the one hand, we understand a traditional haiga to be a Japanese art form that started with Socho, Buson, Goshun, Shiroi and Issa or experienced its heyday and in which the haiku was written in brush calligraphy - the art of fine writing - and composed together with a painted brush picture - and what is still used today. On the other hand, today we understand a traditional Haiga in the non-Japanese world to be a total work of art by a multi-talented team of artists:
  • Author
  • Haiga-Artist
  • Translator into Japanese or English language
  • calligrapher
  • Musician
  • Presentation
The contemporary Haiga is designed either by a painter-poet or by two people. Ie a poet writes the haiku and a haiga artist provides a picture. The images can be digital images, graphic images, painted images, photographs (also known as photo haiku) or collages. The experimental haiga can be found particularly with Susumu Takiguchi (calligraphy haiga) or with other artists who work with alienation, collagen and other stylistic devices.

Renku seal

The chain seal tradition began more than a thousand years ago. Authors met to create a chain poem for entertainment and relaxation, in which each writer tried to outperform the other, but also wanted to create a poem by traveling through the seasons, Japanese landscapes and visiting different locations , This type of courtly initially serious chain seal was called "renga" or "ushin renga". Around the 17th Century, the chain seal by samurai and merchant stand, who had the wealth and leisure to devote themselves to this art, had been disqualified as "funny renga" for the 'nonsense' chain seal. During the lifetime of Bashô (1644 1694) and his students, completely new principles of intuitive linking between the stanzas, the progression to ever new scenes of life and the observance of a correspondence between image and language were introduced based on old traditions of chain poetry. This type of chain seal was so different from the now tasteless haikai, much deeper and more serious that this form of chain seal has been called "Renku" (literally: "concatenated verse") since then. There are different lengths and forms of the renku: the hyakuin with 100 stanzas, the Kasen with 36 stanzas, the Nijûin with 20 stanzas, the Hankasen or "Halbkasen" with 18 stanzas, the Shishi with 16 stanzas, the Jûsanbutsu with 13 stanzas and the Jûnicho and Shisan with 12 stanzas each. The most common form is chasing with 36 stanzas and will be discussed here. The other applications of the Renku are modifications of the cheese shape, but all follow the same principles of "link and shift". In principle, the overall structure of the Kasen consists of three parts: the introduction, the prologue or the overture (6 stanzas) - (jo) the main movement, the development or expansion (24 stanzas) - (ha) and the conclusion, the conclusion or the epilogue (6 stanzas) - (kyû). Certain verses have special names or are reserved for specific topics. For example, there are three verse positions within the case that are dedicated to the moon and two that are dedicated to the flowers - traditionally the cherry blossoms. Other stanzas describe the run through the seasons, tell of love or relate to free topics. Link and shift - connection and diversity (of location, people and scenery) is the basic principle of Renku. It is characterized by the two keywords "link and shift" (connection and location or Change of scene) rules. The most diverse types of linking or the principles of verse connections on the one hand and principles of progression (the moving ahead, moving forward) and the principle of diversity, the change of topics and characteristics. "Link" (tsukeai) refers to the connection or relationship between two successive stanzas; "Shift" (tenji) has with the diversity of the topics or Objects and their properties and shapes. "Shift" determines the steady progress through different places and events of the Renku poetry. These traditional ideas and points of view go back to the work of Matsuo Bashô (1644-16949) and his successors. Linking categories: - object linking (mono-zuke) = includes a link between the objects / people, the location or the time of two successive stanzas. For example: An “umbrella” in one verse can be answered with “rubber boots” in the next verse. An activity in a stanza can continue in the following stanza at a different time or in a new place, etc. This can be formulated narratively, but objects or images must be directly related to one another. - meaning linking (imi-zuke) = concatenation by the meaning of the words: realizes a concatenation of two neighboring stanzas by the meaning of the words, by allusion or by quotations, winged words, "tea kettles" or other word games. For example, mold means a white horse in one verse and a mushroom-like coating on organic substances in the next. - scent linking (nioi-zuke) = fragrance connection: Bashô deepened the chaining concept under the term “scent linking”, the fragrance connection. He and his successors divided the scent linking into several categories. We basically speak of scent linking when the connection between the verses is more a matter of mood and emotion than a rational association of thoughts or ideas behind the verses. Shift - principle of advancement and diversity: Linking from one stanza to the next is the heart of every Renku composition. In order to avoid monotony and standstill, it is important to master "progression and diversity" (advancement and diversity). The renku lives from the principles of progression and diversity or "shift" (tenji) for short. It is important to always move forward to new topics (see below) and not to look back. Progression - Moving Ahead: The basic idea of ​​"advancing" is not to process the same experiences, feelings or similar topics in the changing verses. There is a recurrence of characteristics or Avoid behaviors or a "local" return within three consecutive verses. In this context, three consecutive stanzas are always considered: The "youngest" or last stanza is called "linking verse" (tsukeku) or subsequent verse. the middle of the three stanzas is called "preceding verse" (maeku), or middle stanza and the first or the first written is called "leap over verse" (uchikoshi) skip or return stanza. The poet of the subsequent verse must absolutely avoid a return (also called uchikoshi) to the world of the leap-over verse. This means that the author of each follow-up verse may use words, topics or elements that relate to the subject areas or Obtain scenery from the previous (middle) verse. However, he must avoid referring to topics from the leap-over verse or the stanzas before it. Diversity - The diversity of topics and their elements: interior and exterior scenes should change in a comprehensible manner and should not be repeated in the linking and in the leap-over verses. This principle also applies to things, their nature, moods, states of mind, etc. In the time of the classic Renga poetry, there were long lists of topics and materials, even special words, that could only be repeated after a certain number of stanzas or that were only allowed to be used so often within a Renga poetry. But these lists were essentially only for the seals in the Renga tradition with a hundred or more stanzas. Most groups of poets only allow one topic or material to appear once within a Kasen - but they make sure that all of these topics or at least every topic can be found in the Kasen. Conclusion - balance is the key (note balance and harmony): With a Renku seal, it is crucial to maintain a balance between "link" and "shift". Shift (the principle of advancement and diversity) is the framework for the structure of the renku, while link (the types of chaining) is the flesh and blood that is supposed to describe the quality of life. If shift (the principle of progress and diversity) is overemphasized, we run the risk of losing the real life and thus the fun of the Renku seal. If shift (the principle of progressive and diversity) is ignored, the result will be monotonous.

Renshi

Renshi is a term for modern chain poetry, (ren - connected poem, shi - in a modern, formally independent style). At least two or more poets (and translators) meet in a common place for a personal encounter. Participants are poets who are not shaped by the tradition and the classic rules of Japanese short poetry (compared to the Renga / Renku poetry). The language can be monolingual or multilingual with a multicultural background. The central, classic motifs such as moon, blossom, love are no longer used for structuring. The motifs of the poetry are the entire spectrum of our experiences, but, to make the difference clear, essentially essay poetry and not the result of observing a (natural) event, apart from the comments on the concrete encounter on site. Minimum speed: Every author is under a certain time pressure, which he masters with his ability for spontaneous and original creativity due to the situation of personal encounter. No competition: team spirit connects the authors. The central concern is the common creative process, respecting the diversity of the co-author. The number of chain links is free. The stanza form is free, unbound, very rarely the tanka form or the sonnet form. The number of verses is free. The verse metric is free. Linking: The answering poet takes up a word from the last verse, the superficial meaning or the associations of a further level of meaning, 'smells' (after Bashô) the scent of the previous stanza and thus starts the next chain link. Dualistic connections are also deliberately tried out. Political and cultural allusions are also taken up. In the course of the new chain link, however, there is no further telling or even sticking to the 'topic', instead there is a change of associations, an unexpected turn to a new topic, a leap into contradiction Every single step is free from the desire to return. You follow the run and change your mind just from wanting to move forward. The trace of the previous step is blurred and the very personal idea of ​​the follow-up author points in a new direction, which again ... etc.

rengay

The Rengay was developed in 1992 by the American Gary Gay based on the Japanese Renku seal. Gary Gay has been Chairman of the American Haiku Society since 1991. He developed this novel structure of community poetry out of the disappointment of rarely being able to complete a renku session in a single session and the desire for a simple, straightforward, topic-centered form that can be used without much prior knowledge. "Ren" means "connected" as in the Japanese word Renku, the suffix "gay" comes from Gary Gay's last name. The English word "gay" also means among other things cheerful, lively and is intended to indicate the easier character of the poem. In contrast to the Japanese Renku with its strict form and the difficult to understand rules, the American Rengay is simply designed. A leader is therefore not necessary, all participants have equal rights. It consists of 6 three or two-line verses that are written alternately as follows: 2 participants (A + B): A-3 lines • B-2 lines • A-3 lines • B-3 lines • A-2 lines • B-3 lines 3 participants (A + B + C): A-3 lines • B-2 lines • C-3 lines • A-3 lines • B-2 lines • C-3 lines or alternatively 3 participants (A + B + C): A -3 lines • B-2 lines • C-3 lines • A-2 lines • B-3 lines • C-2 lines While in Renku it is essential to go through a yearly run and the participants cover as wide a spectrum of world experience as possible , the Rengay is usually based on a topic that is determined in advance. This can be a season, but other contents such as fire, water, certain cities or situations are also possible. The headline of the Rengay usually picks up a word or a combination of words from the completed seal. As in the Renku, it is not wrong to proceed with link and shift to guarantee a greater variety of topics and perspectives. However, inventor Gary Gay does not consider this to be absolutely necessary. Each verse can only be based on the agreed subject, without paying attention to the previous verse. In his opinion, there is nothing wrong even with the repeated use of meaningful words. But as with other forms of chain seal, the following also applies here: each verse must stand on its own and be able to exist as such. Ultimately, the quality of the verses and how they interact determines whether a Rengay is successful or not. Since the Rengay was provided with only a few rules from the outset, it has developed in several directions and, unlike its traditional ancestors, is predestined for further experiments. For example, the Dutch haiku author Max Verhart developed the variant of the "mystery rengay" in 2000: the participants start without an agreed subject and are surprised by what emerges in the course of the poetry (the first mystery rengay by Max Verhart and Betty Kaplan appropriately bore the title: Dracula's Coffin). Authors from different countries often write multilingual Rengay. You can also find so-called Solo Rengay, which was written by only one poet.

All in all, this is an open and easy-to-learn form of community poetry, in which the focus can be on the joy of poetry and experimentation.

autumn glow

In the high maple next to the stone cross

a shimmer of red.

Church clock. In the night silence

clearly falls a first apple.

Haze in the hills. The ups and downs of the baskets

between the vines.

Two wine festivals to choose from on Saturday evening.

Impending sky.

Your father holds the kite,

but a Withrust him away.

Thanks to forecast food. On TV football and fire in the fireplace.

Udo Wenzel: Verses 1, 3, 5

Horst Ludwig: Verses 2, 4, 6

A B · C · D · E · F · G · H · I · J · K · L · M · N O P Q R · S · T · U · V · W · X · Y · Z

Ageku,
the final verse of a chain seal. On the one hand, this last stanza describes the end of the sequence, on the other hand, a future event is anticipated (eg a reunion). In the classic Renga / Renku seal (e.g. Kasen) that is ageku located in the same season as in the previous spring (blossom) verse - i.e. in spring. 'Spring' can be used to address spring in general, the middle of spring or the spring exit. However, other seasons are also described in more modern or contemporary Renga / Renku seals (e.g. Shisan). Even ageku Without a season (various) are not uncommon. Whatever is chosen, that ageku should have a mirror function for hokku offer in the form of a summary, greeting or an optimistic outlook. To meet all of these requirements ageku To be able to fulfill, the author is largely of the strict rules of connection, jump and diversity that apply to all other stanzas (the hokku except), exempt. The composition of the ageku is therefore like the hokku, a special honor. The poet who hokku, the input verse, shouldn't have written that too ageku, the final verse, write.

Haijin,
honorable term for a perfect haiku poet in Japan. In German-speaking countries however, Haiku poet or Haiku poet is the correct name for Haiku writing poets.

Hankasen
or "semi-cheese", form of Renga / Renku seal with 18 stanzas.

hokku,
Start verse of the Renga / Renku seal. The Japanese haiku developed from the Tanka seal (tanka means short poem or song with grace). When you started to write the Tanka by two authors, you called it tan renga, which means something like short chain poem. The tan renga was written further over time: the same or more authors attached stanza to stanza and that renga, the chain poem, was born. The guest of honor, usually a Renga master moving through the country, had the honor of the start verse, the hokku, to write the common chain. In contrast to all other verses that follow, this verse could be written without having to refer to a previous stanza and established itself as an independent form of verse - later it developed into haiku.

Hyakuin,
Form of Renga / Renku seal with 100 stanzas.

Jûnicho,
Form of Renga / Renku seal with 12 stanzas.

Jûsanbutsu,
Form of Renga / Renku seal with 13 stanzas.

Kasen,
the most popular form of Renga / Renku seal with 36 stanzas. The overall structure of a Kasen consists of three parts: the introduction, the prologue or the overture (6 stanzas) - (jo) the main clause, the development or extension (24 stanzas) - (ha) and the conclusion, the conclusion or the epilogue (6 stanzas) - (kyû). Certain verses have special names or are reserved for specific topics. For example, there are three verse positions within the case that are dedicated to the moon and two that are dedicated to the flowers - traditionally the cherry blossoms. Other stanzas describe the run through the seasons, tell of love or relate to free topics. The Renga / Renku is governed by "Connection and change of location or scene" ("link and shift").

kigo (Japanese 季 語, German Season word),
Special words or phrases that are generally associated with a specific season in Japan or in the respective country. This allows an economy of expression, particularly valuable in the very short forms of Japanese poetry, to mark the season in which the poem or verse is located.

Kukai,
a haiku meeting of interested people Haijin, on which the participants of the round in the first step write Haiku ia on a given topic. In the second step, the haiku are collected and listed anonymously. In part three, each participant (according to a given system) awards points for the texts (except for his own). In the last step, the points for each haiku are counted, the haiku discussed and the authors named. In the meantime, the name Kukai has also become common for virtual haiku meetings on the Internet, which follow the same principle. There is either an overall theme for the haiku to be sent in or a kigothat is said to be contained in the haiku.

Matsuku,
Verse one Tanka with 7-7 moors.

More or blackberry (Lat. blackberry, Period),
Japanese sound unit, plural: Moren. The moors are all the same length and carry less information than syllables in European languages. Japanese poetry is not syllable-counting, but quantizing. For example, the vowel a can make up two moles or n represent a more. Each mora is represented in Kana (= Japanese characters) by one character and is considered a rhythmic unit in poetry. The pioneers of German-speaking Haiku and Tanka mistakenly transferred the Japanese structure of the Moren to our syllable structure.

Nijûin,
Form of Renku seal with 20 stanzas.

Renga(Japanese 連 歌),
is a traditional Japanese chain poem. It has emerged from the tanka and then from the tan renga developed. Today it is also known as contemporary renku known. Certain verses have special names or are reserved for specific topics. For example, there are verse positions within the chain seal dedicated to the moon and two dedicated to the flowers - traditionally the cherry blossoms. Other stanzas describe the run through the seasons, tell of love or relate to free topics. The Renga / Renku is governed by "Connection and change of location or scene" ("link and shift"). The different types of linking and the principles of stanza connections on the one hand and principles of progression (moving forward) and the principle of diversity (changing topics and properties) are observed.

saijiki,
a collection or a directory of seasonal words (kigo)that are used in a traditional haiku.

senryu (Japanese 川 柳),
one to Haiku very similar Japanese poem form. While the traditional Japanese haiku is more focused on nature, the Japanese Senryū deals with the emotional experience, with the personal, the emotional.

shisan,
Form of Renga / Renku seal with 12 stanzas.

Shishi,
Form of Renga / Renku seal with 16 stanzas.

Sabine Sommerkamp (1992)

The German-language haiku seal. From the beginning to the present

September 1920 Rainer Maria Rilke from Geneva wrote: “Do you know the little Japanese (three-line) stanza that Shark quays is called? the (sic) Nouvelle Revue Francaise brings about transmissions of this indescribably mature and pure design… ”Addressee of the letter in which Rilke expresses his“ discovery ”of the haiku is Gudi Nölke. A few days later, from September 17th to 20th, he visited her at the Chalet Wartenstein, discussed with her and her Japanese partner Asoka Matsumoto about haiku, which for him "became a new and valuable content of consciousness".
Little moths shudder across the book, shivering; they are dying tonight and will never know that it was not spring.
This one of a total of three handed down Haiku Rilkes is one of the early isolated individual examples that break the Japanese three-liner compositionally in German-speaking countries. The German-language haiku seal only really began in the 60s. But let's take a look back and ask about the very first examples of German haiku and the influencing factors that determine them.

I. Early individual examples of German-language haiku

German haiku have been around for about 90 years. At first sporadically, then for a long time none, then again, since the Second World War continuously increasing. However, an accurate identification of this early German-speaking “haiku era” can only be an approximate one for the following reasons: First, a large part of the sources has not yet been viewed, for example, a lot of what appeared in private print or occasionally in magazines; on the other hand, it has so far not been possible to precisely delimit the influences of short Japanese forms, which included English and French, from the company's own traditional lines. Impressionism, which started from France and manifested itself in all areas of art, the general enthusiasm for Japan around 1900 and not least the political situation after the victory of Japan in the Russo-Japanese War in 1904/05 awakened a feeling of intellectual affinity and identity in Germany , which among other things stimulated literary imitation. This agreement in terms of artistic and aesthetics, however, makes it difficult to assess any suggestions made by Tanka and Haiku in the lyrical short forms that are intensively cultivated by Impressionism. Knowledge of Japanese poetry and direct influences have been documented in individual poets since around 1890. The first "independent" German haiku are included in the poetry collection "Polymeter" by Paul Ernst (1898-1866), published in 1933:
A water rose that emerges from the deep.

The water ripples.

The poets around 1900, whose work contains haiku or impressionist, self-contained three-liner, include Peter Altenberg (1859-1919), Alfred Mombert (1872-1942) and Arno Holz (1863-1929), who temporarily with Paul Ernst worked on the renewal of the lyrical forms:
The embers go out in the sky, softly raise the eternal stars.
The French “Shark Kai” fashion, which was influenced by Impressionism, appeared in the early 20s, in addition to Rilke, in the works of Franz Blei (1871 - 1942) and Ivan Goll (1891 - 1950), which were partly playful and partly sentimental Three lines:
Did you cry so much After twenty years of parting, it's still raining.
Klabund, who recorded French haiku from around 1920 in his famous literary history, calls these poems "imitations of the lyrical style of the Japanese". Formally and in terms of content, the three-liners that emerged during this period can generally be seen in the in-depth knowledge of their authors' haiku. Only Rilke comes close to the Zen content of the Japanese model, as the following haiku, created a few weeks before his death, shows:
Entre ses vingt fards elle cherche un pot plein: devenue pierre.
Haiku gained a higher profile in Germany through two publications by Franz Blei and Ivan Goll. In his book "Haikai", published in 1925, Blei defines haiku as a "picture in the smallest space with a pointed accent in the third or even in the second line" and explains his theoretical statements with self-written examples. Goll describes the haiku in his essay "Twelve Shark Quays of Love" published in 1926 as "lyrical epigram, which should convey the most intense image and wide feeling in as few words as possible". It is likely that the quoted early attempts at haiku, as well as the two essays by Blei and Goll, contributed to the spread of the Japanese three-liners and "contributed to its penetration into the youth between the two world wars". But "the beginnings of dealing with the small poems were stifled by the National Socialist ideology literature."

II. Invigorating impulses for German post-war poetry

The period of the Second World War was not very productive for German-speaking haiku. It was only after 1945 that the Japanese three-liner became literarily attractive again and subsequently initiated the start of an autonomous German-language haiku poem. Their emergence was favored on a broad basis by the haiku adaptation of leading post-war poets, such as Günter Eich:
Caution The chestnuts are blooming. I take note of it, but do not comment on it.
The haiku influence in Eich's poetry, which also translated Japanese haiku into German, is reflected in the works of other authors who shaped German post-war poetry, such as Paul Celan, Helmut Heißenbüttel, Eugen Gomringer and Bertolt Brecht:
The farmer plows the field. Who will bring in the harvest?

Bertolt Brecht

The question of whether this is a direct or indirect haiku adaptation brought about by other literary influences cannot be answered clearly because of the parallel developments and interactions of an increasingly international literature. It is a fact, however, that such haiku moments in the work of influential authors of German poetry on a broad basis provide invigorating impulses in terms of concentrated brevity, objectivity, immediacy, and symbolism. The reasons for the growing interest in haiku after the Second World War can essentially be seen in three aspects. Firstly, there was a high "catching up" in German poetry, secondly, the "literary insecurity" of the poets of the war years and the ubiquitous lack of history directed the view towards the Far East, and thirdly, the flood of translations of foreign literature favored the stylistic adaptation of the Japanese three-liners.

III. German-language haiku translations: an overview

Of the earliest German transmissions of Japanese poetry (1894), none influenced the few haiku that first appeared, because these translations emphasized old Japanese poetry and tanka. For the German-speaking countries, the haiku was only really opened up after 1900. As in the case of Rilke, French transmissions or translations from English were the source for the early German-language haiku. In addition to Karl Florenz's popular poet's greetings from the east (30), which continued until the 1894s, in which the haiku is translated as a rhymed four-liner, early translations include Hans Bethge's “Japanese Spring” (1911) and those at the time better known broadcasts by Paul Enderling, Julius Kurth and Otto Hauser. Furthermore, Michel Revon's widely read “Anthologie de la littdrature jaonaise des origines au XXe siècle” (1910), which, extended by the writer Paul Adler and translated from French, was published in German in 1926, Wilhelm Gundert's literary history “The Japanese Literature”, which is still valid today. (1929), the great English haiku anthology by Miyamori Asatarô "An Anthology of Haiku Ancient and Modern" (1932) and the popular transmissions of Paul Lüth's "Spring, Swords, Women" (1942). The "haiku interpreters" that have been widely read since the Second World War include Werner Helwig, "Wortblätter im Winde" (1954), Manfred Hausmann, "Love, Death and Full Moon Nights" (1951), Gerolf Coudenhove, "Full Moon and Cicada Sounds" ”(1955),“ Japanese Seasons ”(1963), Günther Debon,“ The Ferry in the Snow ”(1955), Erwin Jahn,“ Falling Flowers ”(1968), Dietrich Krusche,“ Haiku ”(1970) and Jan Ulenbrook, “Haiku: Japanese three-liner” (1979). Special mention needs to be made of the translations of the Viennese sinologist and Japanese scientist Anna von Rottauscher, first published in 1939 and published every few years, “Yours yellow chrysanthemums. Japanese wisdom: Haiku poetry ”. Because this volume with its Japanese three-liners translated into irregular verses, simple language and rich in associations "documents one of the roots of German haikus in its reception history".

IV. A foundation for German-language haiku poetry

As part of a rediscovery of the Japanese three-liner, numerous authors and independent haiku attempts were made simultaneously and independently at different locations in the first decade after the Second World War. For example in Vienna, where René Altmann (1929-1978), Hans Carl Artmann (born 1921), Andreas Okopenko (born 1930) and Hans Weissenborn (born 1932) in the Freundeskreis have dedicated themselves to haiku since 1946. In 1953, the first haiku collection by the Lower Austrian author Karl Kleinschmidt appeared with “The Narrow Way” - a date that was shown to mark the beginning of German-language haiku poetry for the first time. Kleinschmidt, who calls his 200 three-line poems "Haiku" only in the subtitle and only in parenthesis, documents a "groping", sometimes still not very independent poetic approach. It does not fulfill the verse specification of the classic seventeen syllable pattern (5/7/5) but adheres strongly to its "Haiku source", the translations of Anna von Rotauschers, both formally and in terms of content:
How I dip my hands in the water in the morning - it sounds so special. Spring ...?

Karl Kleinschmidt

Winter snow suddenly turned into rain 0 spring, are you there?

Sampu

A Haiku poem, which is formally and in terms of content equivalent to the Japanese model but is nevertheless autonomous, is published in 1962 under the title “Haiku”. The author is the Austrian writer Imma von Bodmershof (1895-1982). Although for her the translations of Anna von Rotauschers were a “bridge” to the haiku, she dresses almost half of the 128 poems arranged according to the seasons in the classical way Haiku form. In the course of her in-depth haiku studies, she later revised the longer three-lines of this collection: ”... when I published the first haiku at the time, I still thought it was allowed to sometimes 19 or even 21 syllables (always only odd numbers, the even ones close, the odd ones leave the way open for the reader) and I used 60 of 128 Haiku this opportunity. However, I have completely moved away from it. The number 17 contains a force that cannot be replaced by anything else. By revealing some nuances, I shortened the length of this volume's haiku. ” But not only the form, the content is also central to the author, who is a friend of Rilke's, and as for him, the image, the symbol, the Zen content that is inherent in the Japanese three-liner is the actual haiku component: ”… Hailu ( sic) not at all do, they can only meet you, only one picture at a time can become transparent for the symbol, and that is what it is all about in my eyes. ”
The candle goes out. How loud the cricket calls in the dark garden.
A burning candle in the dark, in Christianity closely linked to the appearance of Jesus, represents spiritual knowledge as a self-nourishing and thus self-consuming light. It is a doomed fire that has eternal value. In the present poem it is already in decline, indicating its extinction to the day and season reference: its state corresponds to the position of the sun in the autumn evening. With the onset of darkness, voices that were barely audible before are awakened “in the dark garden”, inside man: the outside environment, nature, is a mirror of the spiritual space. How the force of seasonal growth is reflected in the sun-ripened fruit in the autumn harvest season reveals the spiritual maturity of man in times of decline. It is only in the autumn dark that the "light fruit" unfolds its full radiance, the internalization of the sun becomes audible, like the loud cry of the cricket in the garden at night. This picture places the poem in the series of traditional Japanese haiku. If you compare it, for example, with Issa's related three-liner, in which the nightly weeping of the cicadas is put into perspective with the indication that the stars also have to part, you can see the same interplay of light and shadow. It is expressed even more clearly in Bashô's famous cicada haiku, in which the chirping of the crickets seems to penetrate into the rocks, into the darkness, under the midday sun. The extinguishing of the candle and the call of the cricket exemplify the seasonal rhythm of systole and diastole in their relationship to each other, in which the person perceives the light of the sun as a spiritual force "in the dark garden". Haiku, the two “Haiku Collections” and “In the Foreign Garden” published by the well-read author and the poetological “Study on Haiku” by her husband Wilhelm von Bodmershof, published in 1970 and 1980, as well as the poetry by Hajo Jappe, who was a friend of both authors (1903 - 1988), who published his first Haiku volume in 1958, lend a solid foundation to the German-language Haiku seal that is still under construction.
Through the crumbling roof, the wind gently reaches me in cherry blossom branches.

Hajo Jappe

V. Basic poetological positions of German-speaking “haijin”

A representative picture of the current German haiku scene was provided by the 30 und. September 1979 held in Bottrop "First German Haiku Biennial". The aim of this first major gathering of around 20 authors from all over Germany was to recite short poems of their own, to discuss the importance of the Japanese haiku for German poetry, and to comment on its binding nature and possible adaptations. A fundamental clarification of these aspects was necessary, among other things, due to the appearance of the first anthology of the German Haiku (1979), since this anthology presents a broad spectrum of German-speaking forms from the beginnings to the present, but also without the authoritative stylistic evaluation The question of a relevant poetics implies. There was a lack of clarity about the “correctness” of the lyrical starting point both among the authors represented here and among the other 'haijin', for whom this book represents a preliminary guide. The discussion was therefore primarily about the degree of poetic adaptation to traditional Japanese haiku. Here, as well as on the basis of the poems presented later, the individual contributions can be summarized in three basic positions, some of which merge into one another: in a partial, a formal and substantive and in a purely substantive approximation to the Japanese three-liner. Apart from Jürgen Völkert-Marten, Peter Coryllis, among others, spoke in favor of a partial alignment, who pointed out that the Japanese fluidity, the mental concentration of the haikus, pointed the way to German poetry to a new short form; It was not a question of imitating the three-liner, but of expressing this new form, and the risk of a purely formal orientation had to be excluded. He suggested that haiku in German be seen as a poetic aphorism with the lowest possible number of syllables. I replied that I am campaigning for a German equivalent in terms of form and content that the name “aphorism” may indicate a subjective rating. What is important is the objective, universal and clear character of the short poem, the core of which is a central picture. The neutrality value of this nature-related image, which triggers a sudden recognition in the reader, is not specifically Japanese, but transferable, since its effect is aimed at the unconscious in humans. The same applies to the number of syllables; Although the German language is structured differently from the Japanese and consequently the syllable count is different, one thing is constant in East and West: the duration of a single breath, which corresponds to the length of 17 syllables. Hans Stilett agreed with this point of view by pointing out the formal value in addition to the meaning of verbal recesses in the meaningfulness of the single word, the rediscovery of "spilled values" by dealing with foreign cultural goods. He himself tries to achieve this alignment by means of a Iambian-Trochean rhythm and a right-justified spelling. It is ideal if, as with the great musicians, the strict form combines with the intensity and liveliness of the message. The formal limitation can only restrict the small mind, for the great artist it is an additional requirement, an aesthetic attraction, because he has so much to say that he sees the form as an enrichment that prevents the artwork from flowing away. K. raised an objection to a formal adaptation. Hülsmann. On the one hand, it is not possible to apply the so-called rules to a completely differently structured language, and secondly, there are no fundamental rules. The difference between European and Asian thinking would lie in the word “basically”. We always have something “fundamental”; this attitude is foreign to the Japanese. The trends of modern Japanese haiku poetry also showed formal variability. In a summary statement, the discussion group agreed that brevity, conciseness, visuality and the transmission of a hidden meaning are binding criteria for a possible German-language haiku.
Crane train on the mountain - they know where to go and where to go. Where do we go?

Marianne Junghans

The splendidly fluttering leaves will die on the still hidden but quietly crackling buds

Hans stiletto

The view of the city from the hill of the Acropolis - the gods are silent, the people live.

Harald K. Hülsmann

What applies to the Bottrop discussion about a possible German-language haiku poetics is what Harold G. Henderson noted in 1963 about the character of the North American haiku: “When it comes to establishing standards for haiku written in English… it does seem likely that our poets will eventually establish norms of their own. ”

VI. Role model North America

English-language haiku, which, like German-language haiku, developed into an autonomous form of poetry separate from the Japanese model in the 60s, now offers the greatest literary and extra-literary heterogeneity in the western haiku hemisphere. Over 20 haiku societies and magazines currently care for and spread this still young genre, the pedagogical status of haiku as "the most commonly taught poetic form in the primary schools" guarantees a foundation for the structure and existence of English-language haiku poetry, and last but not least, the central role that she now plays in non-literary areas such as photography, film, music, dance and poetry therapy, all of which contributes to the fact that the writing of haiku is gradually becoming a popular style in the USA and in the mother country of the Japanese three-liners of popular sports. If one wonders why this development was so favored, there are five global reasons: the greater willingness of Americans to adapt to foreign cultural assets, the closer proximity of the haikuaactive west coast to Japan, the comparatively high proportion of Japanese living in the USA, the strong influence of the Haikus on imagism and "beat poetry" on today's US literature and not least the direct contact of the American occupation forces during the Second World War in Japan with Asian literature and Zen Buddhism. Certainly, these reasons have no influence on the development of German-language haiku poetry. As a yardstick and orientation guide, however, the haiku situation in North America offers us the opportunity to investigate factors that could appropriately anchor German-language haiku in the local literature. One of these factors would be haiku care and distribution societies, as well as regular publications. Let's take a look back. - The first national, larger literary society for the maintenance of Japanese short poetry was the “Senryû Center” in Düsseldorf, founded in 1981. The association, which became a member of the “Federation of International Poetry Association” in Washington in 1984 and an associated member of UNESCO, counted approx. 120 domestic and foreign authors, whose contributions were published in four almanacs published by Carl Heinz Kurz between 1985 and 1987. However, the efficiency of this center proved to be low with regard to the popularization of the haiku in that the focus was not on the haiku but on the senryu. As a result, after the Senryu Center was dissolved in June 1988, numerous authors applied for membership in the “Deutsche Haiku-Gesellschaft e. V ”(DHG), Vechta, who is dedicated to the care of Senryus as well as tankas and rengas, but places the haiku at the center of her activities according to the statutes:“ The association's special concern is the preservation and promotion of the independent haiku, his Distribution and maintenance in the German-speaking area. ” The organ of publication of the association, which, with over 80 members, brings together around a fifth of the Haiku authors who are proven to be living in the Federal Republic, is the "Quarterly Bulletin of the German Haiku Society". With the addition of "apropos", magazine for art, literature, criticism, there is a haiku platform for the first time in spring 1985. As the first regular forum for German-language haiku poetry, the "haiku spectrum" contained in "apropos" from 1981 to 1985 presented three times a year on 12 to 28 pages in addition to reviews, reports, interviews, interpretations and form comparisons of poems totaling 98 " haijin ”- 76 German-speaking, 9 Japanese and 13 English-speaking. Tanka, Renga and Senryu as well as Haiku penned by students were also published. A special section, the "German-English Haiku Encounter", brought German-speaking and English-speaking authors together literarily. Analogous to the sketched basic poetic positions of German-speaking "haijin", the haiku published in "apropos" can be divided into three broad categories, a classification that has also emerged for North American haiku: in the traditionally oriented style Imma by Bodmershofs and Hajo Jappes, in the freer, more formally independent style (“liberated haiku”), such as Peter Coryllis and Harald K. Hülsmann in Bottrop proclaimed and in the experimental style of Hans Stilett, Georg Jappe or Roman York.
Two pigeons nest on a gable roof, in a niche.

Günther blade

dawn in the drops on the acorn.

Finley M. Taylor

rauten-haiku (bayern 1) blue the sky white white blue the sky blue white white the sky blue

Roman York

A second factor anchoring German-speaking haikus is its role in school teaching, which, in contrast to that in the USA, can still be described as minor. Although the Japanese three-liner is increasingly used in reading books and textbooks for mother tongue teaching, the lack of knowledge of haiku in many educators and the comparatively small number of initiatives such as “authors at schools” that could illustratively carry haiku into the classroom are sufficient far from laying the necessary foundation for the structure and existence of the German-language haiku seal. Active support should be provided here, for example by haiku societies or haikuversed educators. All the more important is a third haiku-anchoring factor, the connection of the haiku with non-literary areas. It is illustrated in the German-speaking world, for example in the areas of lkebana, photography and music, and, as in the case of Günther Klinge and Ann Atwood, has already led to fruitful cooperation between German-American haiku production. The cooperation of German-speaking 'haijin' with those of other countries is a fourth, essential factor, since the German-speaking Haiku thus moves into an international context. In addition to Japan and the United States, special mention should be made of China, where Haiku's letter, which has been frowned upon for political reasons since the Cultural Revolution, is gradually regaining its appeal. A fifth and last factor relevant to the anchoring of the German-speaking haiku should be mentioned: dealing with the sources of the haiku poetry. Because only in this way, in direct confrontation with the aesthetic criteria of the Japanese model, can what Rainer Maria Rilke was fascinated by the Haiku: a "design that is indescribably mature and pure". This article is taken from: Tadao Araki: German-Japanese Encounters in Short Poems. Munich: Iudicum Verlag. 1992. ISBN 3-89129-305-4. Pp. 79-91, references to the quotations and mentioned works can be found there.
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